History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period

Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950′s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.

FAQs About Motorcycle Insurance

Motorcycle insurance is one of the biggest costs involved in riding your motorcycle. Whether your ride is a scooter or a sports bike it’s best to get the best value insurance policy that covers everything you need.

What determines the cost of motorcycle insurance

Your personal details

In the insurance business, age is a common determinant for risk. Male riders under 25 are considered the most likely to file claim, whereas female and older riders are more likely to receive lower premiums. Occupation may also come into play in factoring premiums, depending on whether the coverage compensates you for time missed at work.

Where you live

A big influence on the cost of your car insurance is where you live. The chance of your car being broken into or stolen is a key concern for the insurer. More urban areas traditionally facing greater risk of theft and therefore tend to be more expensive than countryside locations.

The type of bike you own

The type of bike you own can greatly affect your insurance premium. Naturally, a more expensive bike will cost an insurer more to fix or replace. Motorbikes with better engines and faster speeds will represent a greater risk for collision as well as damage caused by an accident.

Older model bikes may require more maintenance and difficulty securing repair parts. For motorbikes older than 20 years, it would be wise to seek an insurer that specialises in classic bikes and cars.

Who else will be riding the bike

Adding another rider to the policy will affect the overall cost. Adding an experienced motorist will generally lower your premium. Conversely, adding a younger individual may escalate costs.

As each insurance company weighs these factors differently, you will find fluctuations in the prices you are quoted. Cheaper rates most likely find your situation more amenable to their particular risk formula.

Usage of the bike

The more often you ride your bike, the more likely you will be involved in an accident. Moreover, bikes that are used for commuting represent a greater risk than those ridden for pleasure, due to the difference in traffic. Residents living in high traffic postcodes may also experience higher insurance costs.

Storage and security measures

Theft represents another concern for insurance companies when calculating premiums. Alarms or anti-theft devices such as an immobiliser, bike lock, or ground anchor can mitigate this risk. In some cases, an insurer might recommend a specific brand or anti-theft device to their consumers.

Parking your bike in a garage can further alleviate theft concerns. Insurance companies will also factor in the crime rate in your postcode before settling on a quote.

Previous claims or convictions

Riders who have made previous claims or suffered motoring convictions present a greater risk to insurers. If you fall into one of these categories, it may be best to seek a company that specialises in insuring convicted riders

Your excess

The excess is the amount of any claim that your insurer will expect you to cover. For example, your riding your bike and you have an accident your bike now needs repairs worth £1000 and your excess is £100, you’ll have to pay £100 and your insurer will pay the remainder.

The more cost you are willing to absorb, the lower your premium. Having a high excess is ideal for riders who travel infrequently or on less busy roads. Those who commute daily may want a lower excess in order to file a claim for minor accidents. This, in turn, will elevate the cost of insurance.

No Claims Discount

Save up your no claims discount by avoiding making small claims upon your policy. After a set number of years, 4 or 5 typically, you’ll often be offered the option to pay an additional small premium to protect your no claims bonus. This can prove very helpful if you subsequently end up having an accident.

Advanced driving skills

By taking an advanced driving course you may also be able to reduce your premiums. The Institute for Advanced Motorists and the Royal Society for Prevention of Accidents each offer membership which provides you with discounts for both the cost of driving courses and your car insurance premiums. Two key variables NOT within the policyholder’s control

Consolidating policies

By insuring a number of vehicles with the same insurer, or by trying to take out home and life insurance through your car insurer, you may be able to secure a ‘bulk buy’ discount.

One final piece of advice

A large percentage of insurance is now sold on the Internet. That’s because it’s convenient and cheap. Many insurers now give a further 10%-15% discount if you buy online.

Level of cover

Third party

This covers the policy holder against damage to a third party’s property or to the third party themselves. Third party only bike insurance cover is usually a cheap motorcycle insurance policy compared to Third Party Fire and Theft or Comprehensive motorcycle insurance.

For example, if you have an accident with another vehicle and it is your fault then the Third Party Only policy will pay for the repair to that other vehicle, and will pay for any medical claims or injuries suffered by the occupant(s) of the other vehicle and your pillion rider. A Third Party Only bike insurance policy will not pay for the costs of repairing your own vehicle nor will it pay anything toward your medical expenses if you are injured. In addition, if your vehicle is stolen or is set on fire, a Third Party Only policy will not make any payment toward the theft or repair of the vehicle.

Third Party Fire & Theft

This is exactly the same as the Third Party Only motorcycle insurance policy, set out above, however a Third Party Fire and Theft UK motorcycle policy will pay out in the event that your vehicle is stolen or is set on fire.

Fully Comprehensive

A Fully comprehensive UK motorcycle insurance policy will pay-out for third party damages and injuries, will pay-out in the event of your vehicle being stolen or set on fire, and will also pay for any damage to your own motorcycle regardless of whose fault the accident was.

Do You Need a Good Domain Name to Make Big Money?

Domain names may be somewhat important to the survival and the success of your website, but they will not automatically make you a success. They are actually a very small part of your success in the grand scheme of things, so do not buy into the idea that a good domain name will translate to big money. For one, there is only one way that the domain itself can earn anything without help from other areas of the business, and that way is by securing a name catchy enough and in high enough demand to coax a big offer from a company with deep pockets . But major companies have started to change the way that they do Internet business. They have become more practical, and have even been known to develop marketing platforms that will incorporate a new original domain name to get around having to pay you anything at all.

No, the best option, if you are an Internet entrepreneur, is to spend less time on what you are going to name your site, and more time on how you will conduct your business. There are many ways to do business, but in the online world, the key to success is mercifully simple. It's the content, stupid. How will you get a large audience if you do not have a quality piece of content to draw in the masses and get them talking to their friends and family. You need devoted visitors, who are willing to do the hard work for you. The way to get them is to be enthusiastic about what it is that you are about. And the only way to be enthusiast is to be passionate.

You can not fake passion. The reason you can not that that your audience has the passion, and they will be able to tell if you do not. So make sure you do not go into any business situation that you do not feel strongly about. It will be more difficult developing content – and more costing developing good content because you'll have to pay someone, who is passionate to spearhead your platform, and that will not come cheap if you want quality.

As you venture into the online world, you are going to hear a lot of business advice, both good and bad. The one thing you should know ahead of time is that throwing a lot of money after a domain name is a waste of time and resources. Instead of burning so many calories over that aspect of the business, focus your efforts on having a great site that people in your area of ‚Äč‚Äčinterest will want to visit. Something they will choose to go to bat for with the people around them.

Using Quotes To Compare Home Insurance Policies

Life is known for being unpredictable. As any experienced person would be more than ready to tell you, it is this unpredictability that is the cause of all types of happiness and sadness in a person's life. For example, a really dark side of this unpredictability is when it brings forth an accident which ends up damaging your house significantly. This would not only result in your sacred abode getting ruined but also lead to your future financial capabilities being damaged substantively.

However, you can http:\\/\\/holidaylocalcominfo.gaify the majority of adverse impacts of these kinds of unpredictable accidents simply by insuring your home. An insurance policy that is designed to protect you from the financial implications of your home getting damaged would be perfect to sidestep the adverse impacts of such situations. There are primarily three different types, with one special category, of these policies that you can buy.

The first type is the buildings only policy which is designed to protect the structure of the house and not the contents inside. The second type is the contents only policies which are the opposite of buildings only policies. These policies just focus on the contents inside your home and not the structure. As is obvious, while the former is good for landlords, the latter is better suited for tenants. However, if you own the house that you are staying in then you will need a policy that provides protection for both the building and the contents of the home. Here, you will need the third variant ie the comprehensive cover policy. A typical comprehensive policy would include things such as protection for the structure of your home, cover for your belongings inside, up to an agreed amount and a variety of other things like outbuildings cover, specific valued item cover, moveable bearings cover etc. The special category of policies includes highly customisable policies which can be taken out for special situations.

Buying such types of policies used to be a major problem in the earlier years because it would mean multiple meetings with the insurance representatives and complicated paperwork. Furthermore, if you were buying such policies a few years back then you would also have to deal with the uncertainty that maybe you did not buy the best policy in the market because you would not be able to compare multiple options. In contrast, online providers with the help of their home insurance quotes modules have made it extremely easy for the end user ie you to buy these policies. All you have to do is provide the online provider with the right information and you would receive semi-formal offers from them in the form of home insurance quotes. You can, rarely, go about comparing these offers from different online providers and pick out the one that meets your needs the most.

The advantage of doing this is a lot more than just getting the best policy. As a matter of fact, you would not only get the best insurance product but would also get it for affordable rates. Making sure that you are getting cheap home insurance policies is one of the qualities of online providers that really sets them apart from other sources.